Because some atomic lattice structures have as an essential unit (or "cell") a cubic or rhomboid cage made of atoms, and
this cage holds a single semi-mobile ion which has several stable quantum position states inside the cell. The ion's post ion state
can be caused to shift by either deforming the cage (applied strain) or by applying and electric field. The coupling between the
central ion and the cage provides the basis for transformation of mechanical strain to internal electric field shifts and vice
An electric field is always associated with the presence of electric charges. It
fills the space around the charge and is the mechanism of interaction between charges. A test particle with small known charge (Q)
placed near a charge concentration will experience an accelerating force (F) due to the field. The value of the electric field (E)
at that location is the ratio F/Q (a vector).
When a solid object like a rod of length (L) is stretched to a new length
(L + delta L), the strain in the rod is defined as the ratio (Δ L)/(L). This is a dimensionless measure of stretching or
compression often stated as "inches per inch", "millimeters per meter", or "microns per meter (microstrain)" for convenience of
A material property of all elastic solids, Young's modulus (Y) is used to describe
"stiffness" of materials. When rod or plate of cross section (A) and length (L) is pulled with force (F) resulting in an elongation
(Δ L), the Young's modulus can be computed as follows:
Y = (L/A)*(F/ΔL)
In piezo applications Y is frequently used to estimate the equivalent spring constant
of a rod or a plate of material that is in contact with a piezo actuator (F/ΔL).
The piezoelectric property of ceramics does not arise simply from its chemical
composition. In addition to having the proper formulation the piezoceramics must be subjected to a high electric field for a
short period of time to force the randomly oriented micro-dipoles into alignment. This alignment by application of high voltage
is called "poling". At a later time, if an electric field is applied in the opposite direction it exerts a "dislodging stress" on
the micro-dipoles. Low level applied fields result in no permanent change in the polarization (it bounces back upon removal).
Medium fields result in partial degradation of the polarization (with partial loss of properties). High applied fields result
in repolarization in the opposite direction.
Yes. All piezo actuators continue to function right on down to zero degrees Kelvin.
This may seem counter-intuitive at first; however, you must remember that the basis for the piezoelectric effect is inter-atomic
electric fields, and electric fields are not affected by temperature at all. Quantitatively, the piezo coupling of most common
piezoceramics does decrease as temperature drops. At liquid helium temperatures, the motion of most materials drops to about
one-seventh of that measured at room temperature.
The tendency of some materials to exhibit a change in internal electrical
polarization state in response to a change in temperature. If the materials are equipped with electrodes on two surfaces, a
voltage will arise between the electrodes in response to temperature shifts.
Ceramic is best cut using a special diamond saw. Small prototype parts can be cut from
piezoceramic sheet stock by using a razor blade and a straight edge to score the piezo surface and then making a controlled break.
Even with practice this method does not yield straight-sided parts or repeatable cuts. Use at your own risk.
Good quality temporary bonds may be made with cyanoacrylate (e.g. "super glue"). An added
benefit of cyanoacrylate bonds is that the bond easily achieves electrical contact. The length of time the bond will last will
be application dependent, from seconds to years. For a short time the performance of the part is very close to that achieved using
the best bonds, which makes it useful for exploratory work.
Yes, they are very fragile! Single sheet piezoceramic should always be handled with great
care. Dropping them almost always results in a shattered part. When two piezo sheets are bonded together with a metal shim
between them, as most standard bending elements are, they become rugged enough to be dropped without being damaged.
The most common method is to make a conductive bond between a metal substrate and the piezo
part. Then one electrical lead is attached to the substrate, and one to the outward face of the piezoceramic sheet. In cases where
a conductive bond is not possible (i.e. when the substrate is glass or plastic), a wire must be soldered to the "down" side of
the ceramic at some location and a corresponding 'dish', 'cutout', or 'overhang' must be used to allow room for the wire when
bonding the piezo sheet to the substrate.
All of the PSI piezoceramic parts come with a thin (~3000 Angstrom units) metallic
electrode already on the ceramic. Wire leads can be soldered (use ordinary 60/40 resin core solder) anywhere on the electrode
to suit the application/experiment. Most PSI ceramics have thin nickel electrodes and require the use of an additional liquid
flux for uniform results. Our Solder/Flux Kit was designed to make this task much easier.
This depends on how the two piezoceramic plates are polarized. If 5A-type, .0075" thick
plates are poled for series operation (i.e. poling arrows pointing in opposite directions) then a wire is attached to each of
the outer electrodes of the bender. ±180 volts is then applied between the wires. If the plates are poled for parallel
operation (i.e. poling arrows pointing in the same direction) then the two outer electrodes are shorted together forming one
lead, and a wire is attached to the center metal shim forming the second lead. ±90 volts may be applied between these leads.
(See Introduction to Piezo Transducers) Poling and Wiring.
A sheet can be stretched to a strain of approximately 500 microstrain
(micrometers per meter) in regular use. Higher surface strains can be achieved, but the statistics of survival get worse.
Proceed with caution.
There is no inherent frequency limit for a piezoceramic sheet. In practice the frequency
limits of applications are usually determined by resonances associated with the shape and/or size of the transducer design. A
typical 2.85" square, .0075" thick sheet of PSI-5A material has a thickness mode vibration in the neighborhood of 13 MHz and a
planar dilatation mode at around 14 KHz. At ultrasonic frequencies large surface area parts draw considerable current and resistive
heating of the electrodes becomes the limiting factor.
For low frequency operation (0 to 5 KHz) a conservative recommendation for applied bi-polar
voltage for a .0075" thick single sheet of PSI-5A ceramic is ±90 volts. Voltage applied in the poling direction only can be raised
up to ~300 volts. Use caution!
In theory, one standard PSI-5A sheet (1.5" x 2.5" x .0075") used as an "extender" can
do .00035 joules of work on the outside world in a quasi-static cycle (i.e. a slowly executed sinusoidal cycle). When operated just
under its first longitudinal resonance of 15 KHz, the theoretically available output power from the sheet would be around 5 watts.
In practice it is difficult to collect more than 10% of this work. Resonant designs can be considerably more efficient.
Assuming that we stretch a PSI-5A (1.5" x 2.5" x .0075") sheet to ±500 microstrains
quasistatically at a frequency just below its fundamental longitudinal resonance of 15 KHz, and that we collect 100% of the
stored electrical energy at its height twice per cycle we would get approximately 9 watts of electrical power from the sheet.
The mechanical energy input under these assumptions would be in excess of 100 watts. Resonant designs can be considerably
more efficient. However, the mechanical apparatus for achieving the above mentioned 15 KHz high strain excitation is not
available, and there is no known electronic method for extracting 100% of the available energy.
A "Double Quick Mount" bending element bolted to a rigid surface provides a convenient
demonstration of a cantilever mount generator. Applying 80 gram force to its tip at a frequency of 60 Hz produces an open circuit
voltage of 15V peak between its two electrical leads. When the leads are connected to a 8 Kohm resistive load, the output to the
load is 5.3 Vrms, representing a power output of 3.6 mW.
We do not have any spice models. As you probably have guessed, for each new thing the piezo
is glued to, a new "AC source" characteristic arises. With so many various applications for piezo, we do not have the resources
to comment on application-specific questions.
A piezoceramic actuator which is cyclically driven at a constant cycle time between the
same two points will perfectly repeat its path every time. However, if the cycle time or either endpoint is changed, hysteresis
and creep effects cause non-repeatable motions.
Temperature changes cause a voltage to appear across the electrodes of any piezo transducer.
This is due to the pyroelectric properties of piezoceramic. Temperature also affects every property of piezoceramics
(elastic, dielectric and piezoelectric coupling). There is no general trend. Each dependence must be looked up or better
yet measured in the context of your experiment.
There is no one 'resonance'. There are many resonances. The number of them and their
location in the frequency spectrum depend on the shape and thickness of the part. For a flat sheet as shipped, three obvious
resonances are the ones associated with the length, width, and thickness of the sheet.
The answer is application dependent. If the square wave voltage is low (i.e., less than
30 V), then the answer is usually yes. If the square wave voltage is higher, there is a good chance for shockwave, damage,
cracking, reduced life, or other failures. Careful control of the square wave rise time/fall time is the solution.
Two piezoceramic sheets can be bonded directly to the surface of a structure (such as a
strut, or beam) close to one another at a site where unwanted bending occurs. One is used to sense surface strain. The output
from the strain sensor is fed into a "smart box" (which can be anything from a simple op-amp to an elaborate Digital Signal
Processing computer) which in turn controls a power amplifier that drives the other piezoceramic sheet. Ideally the resulting
mechanical contractions of the second piezo sheet inject a vibration into the structure which is equal and opposite of the
initially detected one so that the net vibration is canceled.
No. Fundamentally, magnetic technology is based on a force which arises 'at a distance',
without physical contact. Piezo technology is based on physical contact and elastic coupling. On an application by application
basis one is usually better than the other. Take solenoid actuators as an example. Piezo actuators can be designed to replace
almost any solenoid but they always come out bulkier and often heavier so it is unlikely that full scale replacement will ever
occur. On the other hand, they always take much less power to operate; so in any application where power consumption is an issue,
piezo actuators are preferred.